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International Journal of Life Sciences 
(ISSN: 2277-193x) (Scientific Journal Impact Factor: 6.106)
    
UGC Approved-A Peer Reviewed Quarterly Journal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Full Length Research Paper

Population Dynamics and Diversity of Cladocera in Relation to Some Physicochemical Status of Freshwater Lake Ramala, Chandrapur.

 

Rajlaxmi Ranrag Kulkarni[1]

Department of Zoology, Sardar Patel College, Chandrapur, India.

 

ARTICLE DETAILS ABSTRACT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


1.       Introduction:

Zooplanktons are important for their role in tropic dynamics and in energy transfer in the aquatic ecosystem. They provide food for fishes in freshwater lakes, ponds and river and play a major role in fish production. A notable contribution of planktonic forms of freshwater ecosystem is available due to Sharma 1996, Kodarkar 1999.Zooplankton occupy a central position between the autotrophs and heterotrophs. In general, they belong to five main taxonomic groups. Protozoa, Rotifera, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Copepoda. The Copepoda and Cladocera are dominant groups of crustaceans found in freshwater habitat.

 

Zooplanktons include a variety of assemblage of taxonomically unrelated microscopic organism having common habitat and thus common ecological characteristics. Many species of Zooplankton are primary consumers and feed on phytoplankton. They themselves are used as a food by fishes. Among the different zooplankton the Cladoceran population constitute a group of microscopic organisms, occurring in a variety of aquatic habitats. Cladocerans constitute the dominant groups of freshwater habitats. Sharma and Michael (1987) explained that the limnetic zooplankton community invariably dominated by the species of Cladocera. Cladocerans popularly called as water flea prefer to live in deep water. Generally, they inhabit the ponds, lakes, rivers and reservoirs and reported to occur dominantly in lentic waters (Raghunathan, 1989 and Sharma, 1991).

 

Ramala lake is a historical impoundment built up by Gond King around Chandrapur city for drinking and irrigation purpose. It is situated about 232 meters above sea level and is at 791815 E longitude and 191815 N latitude. It harbours variety of aquatic plants and animal species. It is the only reminisce of greenery in this polluted and overcrowded city like Chandrapur. Present paper deals with study of Zooplankton species present in Ramala lake, which is perineal water body. Freshwater zooplankton is an important component of aquatic ecosystem, whose main function is to act as a primary and secondary link in the food chain. (Hutchinson, 1967).

 

Adequate knowledge of the zooplankton communities and their population dynamics is a major requirement for better understanding of life processes in a freshwater body since eutrophication influences both the composition and productivity of zooplankton. (Bhora and Kumar, 2004) Since they are longer and easier to identity than phytoplankton, sample can be processed more rapidly, and biologists can be trained in a relatively short time. Zooplankton communities are very sensitive to environmental changes and thus are of considerable potential value as water quality indicators.

 

1.1 Objectives:

         To analyse the physicochemical characteristics of Ramala lake during study period.

         To identify and study different cladoceran species.

         To find out correlation between physicochemical status of water body and species composition as well as abundance of Cladoceran.

         To propose conservation methods.

 

2.       Material and method:

2.1 Study area:

Ramala lake is perennial rainfed water body centrally located in Chandrapur city (Maharashtra). The lake water is used for various domestic purposes, washing, bathing, swimming, religious activities, etc. On the basic of topography, three sampling sites were selected for collection of samples. Samples were collected on monthly basis during June 2018 and May 2019. Monthly samples were collected for the study of zooplankton using plankton net made of botting nylon cloth (mesh 25 cm) by filtering water samples from three different sites of Ramala lake. For identification of Zooplankton species water samples were examined under the microscope with high magnification. For such work the preserved material should be as fresh as possible because long term preservation often distorts the specimens. Standard literature was used for identification of zooplankton species such as Tonapi (1980), Battish (1992) and Murigan et al (1998). Zooplankton samples were collected monthly from June 2018 to May 2019. Physico-chemical analysis of samples was carried out according to APHA (1992) and Trivedi and Goyal (1986). For numerical estimation of zooplankton, the organisms were observed under light microscope using Sedgwick Ratter Cell as per the procedure given in standard methods (ADHA 1992).

 

3.       Result and Discussion:

During the present study, it was observed that zooplankton found in Ramala lake water mainly compromised of five groups. Protozoa, Rotifera, Cladocera, Copepoda and Ostracoda along with nauplii Larvae and eggs. Cladocerons are filter feeders and feed on algae and phytoplakton. At the same time, they themselves are favourable prey of aquatic animals including fishes. Thus, cladocerans represent a key group in energy transfer along food chain. The group Cladocera of Ramala lake is represented by eight species. The group was flourished as a second dominant group at all stations contributing 25% of the total zooplankton, with maximum density in summer and minimum in winter. Representative members of this group were Cereodaphnia cornuta, Moina mirura, Alona pulchella, Chydorus sp., Pleuroxus similis, Macrothrix laticornis, Senocephalus sp., Leydigia sp. etc. Cereodaphnia corruta was found continuously throughout the study period. Alona sp. was found only in winter months. Out of 11 families of Cladocera, eight families have been reported from Indian water, which represent about one fourth of world cladoceran fauna (Rao and Chaubey, 1993)

 

A relative abundance of Cladocerans especially the members of family Chyrodidae indicate eutrophic conditions (Khan and Seshagirirao, 1981). According to Mahajan (1981) Diaphanosoma, Simocephalus and Ceraodaphnia are indicators of Eutrophication. The factors like water temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and transparency plays an important role in controlling the diversity and density of Cladocerans. Presence of more nutrients leads to eutrophic condition of water body, which is favourable condition for growth of cladocerans. Higher nutrient content is the indicator of rich zooplankton.

Maximum population density was observed in winter during present study which may be due to favourable temperature and availability of abundant food. Most of the Cladoceran species feed on microscopic algae and detritus matter. Similar observations were recorded by Pulle and Khan (2003) and Thirumathal (2006).

 

Table 1 : Cladoceran diversity (No/L) during June 2018- May 2019

Months

S1

S2

S3

Total

June

03

01

02

06

July

09

10

06

25

Aug

09

08

11

28

Sept

12

11

08

31

Oct

14

10

12

36

Nov

13

09

11

33

Dec

11

08

09

28

Jan

12

08

08

28

Feb

08

07

09

24

March

07

08

05

20

April

05

06

04

15

May

04

02

03

09

 

Table 2: Monthly variations in Physicochemical parameters values in Ramala lake from June 2018 to May 2019.

Month

pH

Temp (C)

Sulphate(mg/L)

Phosphate (mg/L)

Nitrate (mg/L)

Turbidity (NTU)

June

7.8

27.5

8.4

3.24

1.62

27.8

July

7.6

26.8

7.3

3.22

1.22

32.20

August

7.5

24.3

7.8

4.32

1.14

30.71

September

7.6

27.2

8.6

3.28

0.96

28.96

October

7.8

27.8

7.8

2.12

0.82

22.44

November

7.9

7.5

7.5

1.54

0.68

21.00

December

7.4

7.2

7.2

1.04

0.56

15.08

January

7.6

6.8

6.8

1.38

0.88

14.08

February

7.9

8.2

8.2

1.48

1.40

15.22

March

7.8

7.4

7.4

2.28

1.26

18.98

April

7.2

8.6

8.6

3.14

1.74

21.62

May

7.5

8.2

8.2

3.56

2.16

23.16

 

4.       Conclusion

The zooplankton population density is generally affected by water quality, availability of food, carnivorous zooplankton and other animals in the water body. The present study revealed that different physicochemical parameters like pH, temperature, turbidity, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate, etc. are acting as limiting factors and are influencing the diversity as well as population of Cladocera. As the Cladocerans are connecting link in the food web, it is necessary to conserve the diversity of this group along with other biotic components.

 

  1. References

Apha, (1992), Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater, 18th edition, Washington.

Battish, S.K. (1992) Freshwater Zooplankton of India, Oxford IBH Pubhlishing Co.Pvt.ltd. New Delhi.

Khan, M.A. and I. Seshagiri rao (1981) : Zooplankton in evaluation of pollution, Cent. Bd. Prev. Cont. Poll. Osmania University, Hyderabad 121-133

Kodarkar M.S. (1999) Conservation of lakes in and around Hyderabad, I.A.A. 13. Pub: Hyderabad

Mahajan, C.L. (1981) Zooplankton indicators for the assessment of water pollution. Cent. Bd. Prev. Cont. Poll. Osmania University, Hyderabad 135-148

Murugan, N.P. Murugavel and M.S. Kodarkar, (1998), Cladocera, Indian Association of Aquatic Biologist, 55 pp.

Pulle, J.S. and A.M.Khan (2003) studies on zooplanktonic community of Isapur dam water, India. Poll. Res, 22(3): 451-455

Raghunathan, M.B. (1989) Indian Cladocera (Crustacea) Indian review in life science, 9:137-152

Rao, K.S. and Usha Choubey (1993) Systematic and ecological studies on central Indian lentic Cladocera, In. Prof, K.S. Rao, Recent Advances in freshwater Biology, I:264 276

Sharma, B.K. (1991) Cladocera, Animal Resources of India pp 205-223

Sharma, B.K. and R.G. Michael (1987) Review of taxonomic studies of fresh water Cladocera from India with remarks on biogeography.

Sharma. B.K. (1996) Biodiversity of fresh water rotifera in India, a static report proc.zool, soc. Calcutta. 49: 73-85

Thrimathal. K. (2006) Cladocerans of Amaravathy Reservoir, Udumalpet, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India.

Tonapi, G.T. (1980) Freshwater animals of India, Oxford Publishing Co.Pvt.Ltd, New Delhi.

Trivedi, R.K. and P.K. Goel, (1986) Chemical and biological studies for water pollution studies. Environ. Pub. Karad, India.

1.     



* Author can be contacted at: Research Scholar, PhD Student at Vikram University, Ujjain (M.P.), India.

Received: 15-June-2024; Sent for Review on: 18- June -2024; Draft sent to Author for corrections: 30- June -2024; Accepted on: 06-July-2024

Online Available from 09-July-2024

DOI:    10.13140/RG.2.2.22874.15043

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